American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Hybrid Energy Harvesting for Self-powered Implantable Biomedical Devices

Developing implanted devices is vital for the welfare and safety of well-being because they directly affect lives and safety and provides indication for early recovery. In order to realize the high performance of implantable medical devices, powerful energy sources must be judiciously integrated onto conformal platforms. Energy harvesting from environmental sources and human body motion is becoming increasingly relevant for implantable devices. In this paper, we have developed an efficient energy harvesting technique using low-grade ambient energy sources especially, vibration, and temperature difference, which provides the basis of a self-powered system and allows a wide variety of implanted wearable medical devices to be operated. We have experimentally estimated the harvested energy and validated the amount against the requirements of various miniaturized devices such as cardiac pacemaker, cardiac activity sensing, and electrocardiogram amplifier etc. In addition, this paper investigates the output-harvested energy against the temperature gradient (thermal energy harvesting) and vibrational frequency (vibrational energy harvesting). It is observed that the thermal energy harvesting technique provides higher harvested energy compared to the vibrational counterpart and is linearly proportional to the temperature gradient.

Energy Harvesting, Thermal Energy, Vibrational Energy, Implantable Medical Devices, Peltier, Vulture

Md. Saiful Islam, Md Kamal Hosain, Khalifa Almheiri, Thirein Myo. (2023). Hybrid Energy Harvesting for Self-powered Implantable Biomedical Devices. American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, 7(1), 1-6.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. J. Lv et al., “Sweat-based wearable energy harvesting-storage hybrid textile devices,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 3431–3442, 2018.
2. R. A. Glenn, D. W. Fifer, and M. S. Williams, “Energy harvesting for implanted medical devices.” Google Patents, Jul. 08, 2010.
3. Y. Zou, L. Bo, and Z. Li, “Recent progress in human body energy harvesting for smart bioelectronic system,” Fundam. Res., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 364–382, 2021.
4. K. K. Kim, J. Choi, and S. H. Ko, “Energy harvesting untethered soft electronic devices,” Adv. Healthc. Mater., vol. 10, no. 17, p. 2002286, 2021.
5. C. Xu, Y. Yang, and W. Gao, “Skin-interfaced sensors in digital medicine: from materials to applications,” Matter, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1414–1445, 2020.
6. C. Xu and Z. L. Wang, “Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy,” Adv. Mater., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 873–877, 2011.
7. C. Xu, C. Pan, Y. Liu, and Z. L. Wang, “Hybrid cells for simultaneously harvesting multi-type energies for self-powered micro/nanosystems,” Nano Energy, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 259–272, 2012.
8. C. Fang et al., “Overview of power management for triboelectric nanogenerators,” Adv. Intell. Syst., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 1900129, 2020.
9. Z. Liu, H. Li, B. Shi, Y. Fan, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Li, “Wearable and implantable triboelectric nanogenerators,” Adv. Funct. Mater., vol. 29, no. 20, p. 1808820, 2019.
10. Y.-W. Chong, W. Ismail, K. Ko, and C.-Y. Lee, “Energy harvesting for wearable devices: A review,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 19, no. 20, pp. 9047–9062, 2019.
11. A. Nozariasbmarz et al., “Review of wearable thermoelectric energy harvesting: From body temperature to electronic systems,” Appl. Energy, vol. 258, p. 114069, 2020.
12. R. Hesham, A. Soltan, and A. Madian, “Energy harvesting schemes for wearable devices,” AEU-International J. Electron. Commun., vol. 138, p. 153888, 2021.
13. J. Paulo and P. D. Gaspar, “Review and future trend of energy harvesting methods for portable medical devices,” in Proceedings of the world congress on engineering, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 168–196.
14. J. P. Carmo, L. M. Gonçalves, and J. H. Correia, “Thermoelectric microconverter for energy harvesting systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 861–867, 2009.
15. M. A. Hannan, S. Mutashar, S. A. Samad, and A. Hussain, “Energy harvesting for the implantable biomedical devices: issues and challenges,” Biomed. Eng. Online, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2014.
16. F. Simjee and P. H. Chou, “Everlast: long-life, supercapacitor-operated wireless sensor node,” in Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Low power electronics and design, 2006, pp. 197–202.
17. M. N. Hasan, S. Sahlan, K. Osman, and M. S. Mohamed Ali, “Energy harvesters for wearable electronics and biomedical devices,” Adv. Mater. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, p. 2000771, 2021.